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The generalization of embedded electronic devices implies growing needs for adaptability regarding the software systems that are meant to be deployed on them. Additionally, the combination of the fact that these devices are typically low on resources and used in environments where their security cannot be ensured makes it necessary to deal with performance and reliability issues.
The topic of this thesis is the conception and exploitation of type systems in order to make software systems more adapted to these requirements. Through the definition of well-suited type systems, we modify the way software is produced in order to make it easier to fulfill the specific needs in embedded realm.
The scientific contributions expressed here take place in two distinct moments of the life of software. The first one is when software is conceived : during this period, we advocate the use of a type system that is flexible enough to express high level concepts without generating a loss of performances. The second one is when software is deployed~: then, because it has reached a point where its environment is supposed to be safe, we can take advantage of type inference to adapt the interpretation of programs, aiming mainly at optimization.